Monday, 2 March 2020

A me ri ka New World - Fascist Disorder

A me ri ka

New World - Fascist Disorder

Who controls the past controls the future: who controls the present controls the past.”
George Orwell
“The pretense of objectivity conceals the fact that all history, while recalling the past, serves some present interest.”
Howard Zinn 
 
 
There are numerous incidents in the 20th century that show how dangerous the bankers and corporate elite are. Carroll Quigley described how international financiers worked behind the scenes in many conflicts influencing governments and making deals. The Laurence Boothe Papers at the Hoover Institution document how, in return for economic concessions, Wall Street assisted the 1912 rebellion of Sun Yat-sen in China. The corporate elite have fomented many rebellions and wars. To the ruling elite war is just another means to increase power and profits. 
During and after World War I numerous bankers, corporate leaders, and government officials provided assistance and millions of dollars to place the communists, and later Hitler and Mussolini, into power. Some apologists have claimed that money was only given to the communists to keep Russia in the war against Germany during the first world war, but the evidence clearly refutes this view. These financiers also supported the anti-communists, like Admiral Kolchak in Siberia. It was important to support both sides to insure future profits. Some of the financiers supporting the communists, like Thomas Lamont head of the Morgan banking group, also supported the fascists. 
While various authorities such as Gary Allen have discussed this interaction, Antony Sutton from the Hoover Institution at Stanford University has provided the most irrefutable and detailed evidence of this alliance in several books, especially in Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler and Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution, using U.S. State Department documents, congressional reports, released archives such as from the Nuremberg trials, and newspaper reports. Sutton spoke before the Republican platform committee in 1972, but his news conference was cancelled, and when he returned to the Hoover Institute he was ordered to not make any public statements and his contract with the Hoover Institute was not renewed. 
The Rockefeller-controlled Chase Bank (later Chase Manhattan Bank) helped finance the Bolsheviks as did Lord Milner, head of the London Round Table, a member of the British cabinet, and director of a London bank. The Washington Post on February 2, 1918 said William B. Thompson, a director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, gave the Bolsheviks one million dollars to spread their doctrine. On October 17, 1918 William L. Saunders, deputy chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, wrote to President Wilson “I am in sympathy with the Soviet form of government as that best suited for the Russian people....” John Reed, a communist, worked for the Metropolitan magazine which was controlled by Morgan. Jacob Schiff, head of the New York bank Kuhn, Loeb & Company, heavily financed President Wilson's 1912 election. On February 3, 1949 the New York Journal-American said: “Today it is estimated, even by Jacob's grandson, John Schiff, a prominent member of New York society, that the old man sank about $20 million for the final triumph of Bolshevism in Russia. Other New York banking firms also contributed.” Jacob Schiff helped found the Council on Foreign Relations. 
Much of this nefarious activity took place from 120 Broadway in New York City. A few of the parties based at this address included: the New York Federal Reserve, GE, Guaranty Trust Co., Franklin Roosevelt, and the first Soviet ambassador to the U.S. The first Soviet bank was controlled by Morgan with its Guaranty Trust Company the U.S. agent. American International Corporation, founded in 1915 by Morgan interests and located at 120 Broadway, played a key role in supporting the Bolshevik revolution, and later some of its directors such as Arthur Lehman and Pierre Du Pont supported Roosevelt. 
On March 24, 1917 the New York Times revealed that Schiff had financed the distribution of revolutionary literature to 50,000 Russian military prisoners captured during the Russian-Japanese war. The Times article quoted a later telegram from Schiff in which he said: Trotsky was “what we had hoped and striven for these long years.” In January, 1916 Schiff arranged to bring Trotsky to the U.S. Trotsky entered the U.S. without a passport and was then given a U.S. passport to get back to Russia.

 1 There was an international warrant for his arrest, and when he was detained in Canada, U.S. authorities got him released. In the June, 1919 issue of MacLean's, J.B.MacLean said Trotsky was released “at the request of the British Embassy at Washington...and that the Embassy acted on the request of the U.S. State Department, who was acting for someone else.” 
 2 In The Road to Safety, Arthur Willert, Washington correspondent for the London Times, said Colonel House, chief aide to President Wilson, told him President Wilson wanted Trotsky released. He conveyed this request to the British government. Because Canada and England wanted to keep Russia in the war, it was not in their interest to allow Trotsky to get back to Russia to help end the war. When Trotsky returned to Russia, he learned that Max Warburg, the Hamburg banker, had granted him funds in a Swedish bank. This credit helped finance the Russian revolution. 
 3 DeWitt C. Poole, the American charge d'affairs in Archangel, Russia, quit because Wilson continued supporting the Bolsheviks. With American troops in Russia supposedly to stop communism those who understood what was really happening were quite angry. 

In The Intimate Papers of Colonel House, Charles Seymour said House was able “to prevent the formulation of a policy, demanded by certain groups among the French and British, of assisting the anti-Bolshevik factions in Russia.” The U.S. illegally gave loans to the Soviet Union partly through the Federal Reserve bank. Individuals like Averell Harriman and companies like Standard Oil of New Jersey actively negotiated trade arrangements with the communists, while banks like the Chase National gave loans to the Soviet Union. 
 4 Sutton spent 10 years researching Technology and Soviet Economic Development. He also wrote National Suicide: Military Aid to the Soviet Union and The Best Enemy Money Can Buy documenting how certain Western corporations and financiers built the economy of the Soviet empire. In June, 1944 Averell Harriman, then ambassador to the Soviet Union, in a report to the State Department, quoted Stalin as saying that about two-thirds of all large enterprises built in the Soviet Union had been built with U.S. aid. This pattern continues today, as a vast amount of advanced technology is being quietly transferred to China, partly through Secretary of Defense William Perry's business tics and the U.S. Patent Office. 
 5 Early this century the corporate elite infiltrated the right and left in America. The Guaranty Trust Company helped found the anti-Soviet United Americans. On March 28, 1920 the New York Times, quoting the United Americans, warned of a Soviet invasion of America within two years. Before World War I the Morgan bank also infiltrated domestic left-wing political groups. 
 6 “It must be recognized that the power that these energetic Left-wingers exercised was never their own power or Communist power but was ultimately the power of the international financial coterie....”  
7 Oswald Spengler said, in Decline of the West: “There is no proletarian, not even a Communist movement, that has not operated in the interests of money, in the direction indicated by money, and for the time being permitted by money....” It was easy to exercise this control because these groups needed money and wanted to influence the people. The purpose was to keep informed as to the thinking of radical groups, provide a mouthpiece so they could blow off steam, and be in a position to veto their actions especially if they became too radical. Morgan money established The New Republic. Waller Lippmann, an early recruit of the London Round Table Group, became a widely influential reporter who was used to direct American public opinion. 

Although much of this history has been cleansed, as suggested by the accompanying cartoon, early in this century many Americans understood this corporate communist interaction. This was done, not because of a belief in these ideologies, but to gain monopolistic control over foreign markets, to create wars for more profits, and to progress towards a one world government. Sutton said: “Revolution and international finance are not at all inconsistent if the result of revolution is to establish more centralized authority.” 
8 The radical left, especially the communists, supported greater government control which was in alignment with the corporate elites move towards a one world government. The view that capitalists and communists are enemies is a fraud perpetuated to hide the fact that both groups have long worked together. When Trotsky died, Foreign Affairs said: “He gave us, in a time when our race is woefully in need of such restoratives, the vision of a man. Of that there is no more doubt than of his great place in history.”  
9 In an 11- page salute, the lords of Wall Street bid farewell to comrade Trotsky. International communism was created by the bankers to enslave the masses. Few scholars acknowledge this partly because universities and think tanks often get money from the banks and corporations that committed this treason. C.B. Dall in FDR, My Exploited Father-in-Law is one of the few sources to discuss this interaction. 

James and Suzanne Pool, in Who Financed Hitler, describes how wealthy businessmen from the U.S. and various European countries financed Hitler's rise to power. Many of the German firms that supported Hitler were linked to U.S. and other foreign corporations. Most of the directors of U.S. subsidiaries in Germany strongly supported Hitler. In the 1920s and 1930s, Wall Street and firms like GE 

Image result for image of Cartoon by Robert Minor in St. Louis Post-Dispatch (1911). Karl Marx
Cartoon by Robert Minor in St. Louis Post-Dispatch (1911). Karl Marx surrounded by an appreciative audience of Wall Street financiers: John D. Rockefeller, J. P. Morgan, John D. Ryan of National City Bank, and Morgan partner George W. Perkins. Immediately behind Karl Marx is Teddy Roosevelt, leader of the Progressive Party. Cartoon used: by Robert Minor in 1911 for St. Louis Post-Dispatch 
and Ford provided money and technical aid to develop German and Italian industry. New York bankers like J. P. Morgan and Kuhn, Loeb and Co. helped Mussolini solidify power. German munitions firms like I.G. Farben could not have developed their extensive war capacity without this foreign aid. On the board of directors of I.G. Farben, which produced the gas used in the death camps, were Henry Ford, Paul Warburg, a New York banker, and Charles E. Mitchell of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. William Dodd, U.S. Ambassador to Germany, reported on the interaction of U.S. industrialists with the Nazis in Ambassador Dodd's Diary, 1933-1938. This aid was planned and deliberate. The scholar Gabriel Kolko said: “The business press (in the U.S.) was aware from 1935 on, that German prosperity was based on war preparations. More important, it was conscious of the fact that German industry was under the control of the Nazis and was being directed to serve Germany's rearmament....” 
10 This interaction was part of the deliberate plan to establish a financial system of world control that Carroll Quigley described in Tragedy and Hope

In the 1930s many Wall Street and media interests, such as the Hearst newspapers, supported fascism. The July, 1934 issue of Fortune was devoted to glorifying Italian fascism saying: “Fascism is achieving in a few years or decades such a conquest of the spirit of man as Christianity achieved only in ten centuries....The good journalist must recognize in Fascism certain ancient virtues of the race....Among these are Discipline, Duty, Courage, Glory, Sacrifice.” Prominent newspapers like the Chicago Tribune, New York Times, and the Wall Street Journal praised Mussolini for bringing stability and prosperity to Italy. 
 11 In January, 1933 the New York Times editorialized under the banner “The Tamed Hitler” that there would soon be a “transformation” in Hitler as he started “softening down or abandoning...the more violent parts of his alleged program.” For years numerous scare stories attacked the communist threat, but the press saw fascism as a stabilizing factor. In 1983 the Boston Globe described how the American press supported Hitler. 
 12 The corporate elite saw fascism and the supposed reforms of Hitler and Mussolini as a way to preserve capitalism and increase their wealth and control over society. They created the conditions that led to the New Deal to limit competition and enhance economic and political control. In 1936 in I'm For Roosevelt Joseph Kennedy said “an organized functioning society requires a planned economy....Otherwise, there results a haphazard and inefficient method of social control.” There were many similarities between the New Deal and Hitler's four year plan, and both were supported by the same industrialists. People like Putzi served as intermediaries between Wall Street, Washington, and the Nazis to coordinate and promote their common policies. 
 13 Sutton studied many sources, including archives from the Roosevelt library, and has documented in Wall Street and FDR many of Roosevelt's activities. While history tells use FDR was a man of the people, he was actually a creature of Wall Street. Since the late 1700's the Roosevelt family has been involved in banking. In the 1920's FDR held 11 corporate directorships, two law partnerships, and was president of a major trade association. During this period he often used questionable politics for economic gain; yet few historians have discussed his extensive business activities. He worked closely with many unsavory elements on Wall Street who supported the Nazis and communists, and many of these corporate interests also helped Roosevelt. This nefarious interaction with the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) and one-worlders is often discussed by C.B. Dall in FDR, My Exploited Father-in-Law. Waller Teagle of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York helped the Nazis and worked in Roosevelt's National Recovery Administration (NRA). Roosevelt supporters Bernard Baruch and his aide, NRA head Hugh Johnson, were based at 120 Broadway. GE, a financial backer of the communists and Nazis, actively promoted the New Deal.

The NRA originated with the Swope Plan which was developed by Gerald Swope, president of GE. It also had its origins with Bernard Baruch and the 1915 U.S. War Industries Board. 14 The NRA established centralized corporate and government control over industry. Henry Harriman, president of the Chamber of Commerce, called the NRA a “Magna Charta of industry and labor” and said there must be a “planned national economy.” The large corporations wanted government intervention to prevent competition. Hoover refused to support the Swope Plan because of it fascist nature, so Wall Street turned against him. People like Senators Wagner, Borah, and Gore were not fooled, and they attacked the plan as a scam to give the large corporations control of the nation's wealth. 15 Historians will one day understand that Hoover was right when he called the New Deal a “fascist measure.” Fortunately, the NRA was a failure and was found unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1935. 

When the NRA floundered, the corporate elite turned to a second plan to establish a dictatorship. They were aware that Hitler and Mussolini had used veterans' groups to take power. In the early 1930s General Butler was the most popular general in the U.S., especially among the veterans, because he was tireless in his efforts on their behalf. Butler had the gift to speak without notes and keep an audience spellbound. He had served in the Marine Corps for 33 years, being posted overseas on 12 expeditions, and had received the Congressional Medal of Honor twice, one of only four men to be so honored. He retired in 1930 as a major general in the Marines. In 1933 a Wall Street bond trader, Gerald MacGuire, approached General Butler gradually revealing plans to make him head of the American Legion (AL) and create an army of 500,000 veterans to lake control of the government. Van Zandt head of the Veterans of Foreign Wars said he was also approached by the plotters. The DuPonts controlled the Remington Arms Company which was to supply arms to the veterans' army. Butler was perhaps the one officer in the U.S. who could have recruited thousands of veterans, which is why the corporate elite tried to use him. The AL was established in 1919 by rich officers including Grayson Murphy, the boss of MacGuire. Into the 1930s it was controlled and used by big business especially to control the unions. 

Butler was pressured to lead a new organization which appeared in September, 1934 called the American Liberty League. Officials in the league included John W. Davis, Democratic presidential candidate in 1924, and Al Smith former, governor of New York and Democratic presidential candidate in 1928. In the early 1930s, Davis was chief attorney for the Morgan Bank, while Smith worked for the Du Pont family. Smith attacked the Roosevelt reforms, even stating in 1936 that the New Deal was guiding the nation into communism. Other members of the league included the Mellon group, Rockefeller group, and the Pitcairn family. According to the Scripps-Howard press and its UPI wire service, one of the few pro Roosevelt organs of the national press, leaders of the league were also executives with U.S. Steel, GM, Standard Oil (now Exxon), Chase National Bank, Goodyear Tire, and Mutual Life Insurance. Several groups openly associated with the league were fascist, anti-labor, and anti-Semitic. 16 The DuPonts financed various American fascist groups such as the American Liberty League, Clark's Crusaders, and the Black Legion, which was fanatically against blacks and Jews. 

Butler remained completely loyal to the Constitution, listening to the treasonous plot to gather evidence and learn who was behind it. After the charges of a plot were made public, Congress held an investigation, although only three people testified. Paul French, a reporter for the Philadelphia Record and New York Evening Post, had gained MacGuire's confidence and he supported Butler's testimony. French even quoted MacGuire as reporting that someone on Wall Street with $700 million planned to create an army in the Civilian Conservation Corps. This was a third back-up plan to seize the country. MacGuire also testified but was caught in numerous lies. Butler implicated people with J.P. Morgan, the Rockefellers, GM, E.F. Hutton, and General MacArthur, who was a son-in-law to a Morgan partner. 17 It is not certain if MacArthur was involved in the plot although some of his aides like George Van Horn Moseley and Charles Willoughby attacked the Jewish influence and had strong fascist leanings. 18 MacArthur called the plot “the best laugh story of the year.” 

After French published stories about the plot, there was public concern partly because powerful people named in the plot were not even called before Congress to testify. When Thomas Lamont of the Morgan Bank returned from Europe he told reporters “Perfect moonshine! Too utterly ridiculous to comment upon!” This was the typical way the plotters responded. Remember this point. In the future if prominent politicians and respected businessman are accused of treason, however detailed and reliable the charges, it will be denied. [Yep,finding that out in 2019 in spades DC]

Although Congress did a poor investigation, the investigating committee on February 15, 1935 said it found evidence “verifying completely the testimony of General Butler....There is no question that these attempts were discussed, were planned, and might have been placed in execution when and if the financial backers deemed it expedient.” 19 Unfortunately, Congress took no action against the plotters because it was too late. The large corporations already controlled all the levers of power. Not only did Congress refuse to get testimony from various corporate leaders involved in the plot, some of General Butler's and Paul French's testimony, especially concerning the involvement of corporate leaders, was suppressed in the released reports. Along with Congress, the White House also suppressed corporate involvement in the plot. 20 Despite the concern of many, the mass media belittled the plot. “The largely anti-Roosevelt press of the New Deal era scotched the story as expeditiously as possible by outright suppression, distortion, and attempts to ridicule General Butler's testimony as capricious fantasy.” 21 On Dec 3, 1934 Time magazine in an article entitled “Plot Without Plotters” ridiculed the plot. 22 The Nation and the New Republic said fascism comes from pseudo radical mass movements so Butler's revelations of a Wall Street plot was not a worry. 

Fortunately, Butler's full testimony was published by a reporter, John Spivak, and by George Seldes when the investigating committee accidently gave Spivak the complete version. In 1967 Spivak wrote A Man in His Time. He said: “What was behind the plot was shrouded in a silence which has not been broken to this day. Even a generation later, those who are still alive and know all the facts have kept their silence so well that the conspiracy is not even a footnote in American histories.” He was also concerned that the committee refused to call the wealthy conspirators before it and was angry that nothing was done after Congress confirmed this treason. Spivak said the plot failed because “though those involved had astonishing talents for making breathtaking millions of dollars, they lacked an elementary understanding of people and the moral forces that activated them.” 23 

George Seldes discussed the plot in Facts and Fascism, in his newsletter In fact, and in One Thousand Americans, he said: “There was one of the most reprehensible conspiracies of silence in the long history of American journalism.” About these events in the 1930's House speaker McCormack said: “The (New York) Times is the most slanting newspaper in the world....They brainwash the American people.” 24 The national media cannot be trusted to educate and protect the rights of the people. Jules Archer in The Plot to Seize the White House has preserved the records of this plot, and many of these events from the 1930s are also discussed in The Revolt of the Conservatives by George Wolfskill. 

General Butler strongly attacked the role of big business in national affairs. On August 21, 1931 he said: “I spent 33 years...being a high-class muscle man for big business, for Wall Street and the bankers....I helped make Mexico...safe for American oil interests in 1916....I helped make Haiti and Cuba a decent place for the national City (Bank) boys to collect revenue in....I helped in the rape of half a dozen Central American republics for the benefit of Wall Street....Looking back on it, I might have given Al Capone a few hints.” He accused big business of causing U.S. entry into the first world war and said, on WCAU radio in Philadelphia, that his military expeditions overseas were “the raping of little nations to collect money for big industries” that had large foreign investments. Butler wrote War Is A Racket declaring that war “is conducted for the benefit of the very few at the expense of the masses. Out of war a few people make huge fortunes....Newly acquired territory promptly is exploited by the...self-same few who wring dollars out of blood in the war. The general public shoulders the bill.” Butler told Spivak “War is a racket to protect economic interests, not our country, and our soldiers are sent to die on foreign soil to protect investments by big business.” If General Butler were alive today, the recent invasion of Haiti and Mexican loan guarantee would have shown him that nothing has changed. 

Roosevelt did not have the plotters arrested partly because of his intimate ties with these people. Certain plotters supported Roosevelt and many of them, such as the DuPonts and Remington Arms had offices at 120 Broadway, which was described above. That Davis and Smith, two of the conspirators, had been democratic presidential candidates in the 1920s also did not encourage Roosevelt to expose the plot. “There is strong evidence to suggest that the conspirators may have been too important politically, socially, and economically to be brought to justice after their scheme had been exposed....” 25 While Roosevelt's exact role in the plot has never been delineated, that he refused to investigate the plot, even after Congress concluded that it was real, means that he violated his oath of office to defend the Constitution. 

That no action was taken against any of the plotters was an extremely dangerous precedent. They should have been arrested and tried for treason and sedition and received long prison sentences if found guilty. Instead they were allowed to continue their treasonous acts, which helped cause World War II and the present dangerous situation that we now have in America. This could have been stopped in the 1930s. Corporate influence in our society today makes it impossible to find this plot discussed in any school history books, although in 1977 Hollywood did a movie The November Plan on the plot. General Butler is one of the great unsung heroes of our Republic. 

Butler's charges against big business were strengthened when the Nye Committee investigated the influence of the armament industry and bankers to draw the U.S. into World War I. Between 1934 and 1936 this committee held numerous hearing that described the great profits the munitions industries and financiers made from the war. 26 Wall Street helped finance most U.S. trade with the allies from 1915 to 1917. Bankers like J.P. Morgan testified and Senator Nye said: “The record of facts makes it altogether fair to say that these bankers were in the heart and center of a system that made our going to war inevitable.” The committee issued seven reports in 1935 and 1936 declaring that while evidence did “not show that wars have been started solely because of the activities of munitions makers and their agents” it was “against the peace of the world for selfishly interested organizations to be left free to goad and frighten nations into military activity.” 27 

Andre Tardieu, Ambassador to the U.S. and later French Prime Minister, wrote France and America and said American loans to the allies made a U.S. victory essential for America. 28 New York Mayor Fiorello H. La Guardia said: “Wars are directed by bankers.” Anti-business sentiment was extremely strong, and these hearings were hugely popular, making headlines around the world. News analyst Raymond Swing expressed the view of most Americans when he said “It is almost a truism that the U.S. went into the World War in part to save from ruin the bankers who had strained themselves to the utmost to supply Great Britain and France with munitions and credits.” 29 Today these hearings are almost totally forgotten because they have been removed from our history. 

General Butler was not the only individual who attacked the bankers. After Governor Huey Long became a senator, he called for a redistribute of wealth in America. In various congressional speeches Long attacked the power of Morgan and Rockefeller and this secret ruling class. 30 In April, 1932 he said the supposed plan by the government to soak the rich was really “a campaign to save the rich....Unless we provide for the redistribution of wealth in this country, the country is doomed; there is going to be no country left here very long.” On May 26, 1933 Long called for an investigation of the influence of the J.P. Morgan banking empire on the Roosevelt administration. He also said our involvement in the Spanish-American War and World War I were murderous frauds perpetrated to support Wall Street, which hated and feared him. 

In February, 1934 on national radio Long inaugurated a Share Our Wealth Society to redistribute wealth in America. In the midst of the depression this program was hugely popular. By 1935 there were 27,431 Share Our Wealth clubs existing in every state with at least 4,684,000 members. Long was extremely popular, with a powerful political base in the South. As many were aware, he had decided to run for president in 1936, establishing a third party, since he expected Roosevelt to get the Democratic nomination. He might have won or perhaps have thrown the election to the Republicans. A secret poll revealed that Long, as a third party candidate would get three to four million votes and that he would seriously weaken the Democratic party in many states. 31 Long represented a direct political threat to the corporate elite which had to be dealt with. On August 9, 1935 Long, in Washington, discussed a plot to kill him. He was shot September 8, 1935 and died a few days later. There were charges of a conspiracy but solid proof was never provided. 32 In 1939 two critics of Long said Washington knew about the assassination in advance. 33 

On November 23, 1937 GM and DuPont representatives met with Nazi leaders in Boston and signed an agreement aligning GM and DuPont with Germany. The goals were to defeat Roosevelt in the next election, remove Jewish influence in America, and place an American fuhrer in the White House. A secretary at the meeting sent a copy of the secret agreement to George Seldes, and he published it in his newsletter In fact. On August 20, 1942 Rep. John M. Coffee read the agreement into the Congressional Record, demanding that action be taken against the Du Ponts and officials at GM, but nothing was done. During the 1930's the Du Pont family controlled GM through stock ownership. 34 

Before and during World War II, there was considerable Nazi support in the U.S., which is rarely discussed today. Groups like the Christian Front and Silver Shirts had hundreds of thousands of followers including people in the military, police, and National Guard. They planned to provoke a communist uprising and use that excuse to establish a fascist state. There was a serious concern about a coup d'etat; these groups were extremely violent with many blacks and Jews attacked in various cities. Hundreds disappeared. Leaders like William Bishop were arrested and brought to trial. While some were convicted, others were freed. The FBI and certain members of the cabinet actively worked to negate this influence, but the large corporations and certain members of Congress supported these factions, so prosecutors like Bill Maloney and O. John Rogge were ultimately fired or forced to resign from the government. These fascists were protected by powerful people in the government. By the late 1930s, seven senators and 13 representatives were using their free mail privileges to distribute Nazi literature. Some of this activity continued throughout the war. 

A good example of the fascist influence during the war was the case of Martin Monti. While stationed in the U.S. Army in Italy, he stole a plane and flew to enemy territory. Brought to Berlin he broadcast via radio Nazi propaganda to American troops. As a reward he was made a lieutenant in the SS. After the war, for this treason, he was given a 15 year suspended sentence and allowed to reenlist. Good Nazis were needed to fight communism. 

Considering the association of Wall Street and the newer American fascist groups with the European fascists, there was probably a close alignment with these two American groups which represented a fourth attempt by the corporate elite to establish a fascist state in America. However, this has not yet been clarified by historians. One prominent American Nazi, Lawrence Dennis, formerly of the State Department, worked for E.A. Pierce and Co., a Wall Street firm. Many of these groups supported retired General Moseley, past aide to General MacArthur, to be their leader. In a 1939 speech before the New York Board of Trade, Moseley praised Hitler and Mussolini and attacked the Jews, Roosevelt, and communism. 35 Arthur L. Derounian, under the pseudonym John Roy Carlson, spent five years studying American fascists and, in Under Cover, reported that one leader, Merwin K. Hart, had considerable support from many business leaders including Lamont Du Pont and officials at GM, Remington-Rand and Otis Elevator Company. 36 

In 1940 opinion polls showed that over 80 percent of the people did not want to get into a European war, and the America First Committee (AFC) had 850,000 members and millions of sympathizers. Although it refused to work with Nazi organizations and had many Jewish members, it was attacked as being pro-fascist and anti-Semitic in a manner similar to today's attack on the militias. Isolationism was equated with racism. This was typical government and media propaganda. Except for infiltration by fascists and anti-Semites in a few places, this populist movement simply believed in peace. It supported the Bill of Rights and attacked excessive federal government power and secrecy. Members included future presidents John F. Kennedy and Gerald Ford. John Flynn, a leader of the AFC, became a strict constitutionalist when he realized that Roosevelt, with the New Deal, was paving the way for a future dictator. Flynn became a major critic of the New Deal partly because Roosevelt brought so many Wall Streeters into the government. 37 He investigated how Roosevelt, Wall Street, and the British conspired to use film, radio, and the press to promote war and to slander groups like the AFC for wanting peace. Flynn discovered that Carlson, who wrote Under Cover, also wrote for the communists and his attack on the AFC was partly Wall Street propaganda to weaken legitimate American patriotism. 38 

Trading With the Enemy, by Charles Higham, is a remarkable book that presents in great detail the financial transactions of American corporations with the Nazis before and during World War II. Much of this information was obtained through the Freedom of Information Act in the late 1970s, before that act was weakened. Industrialists especially from American, England, and German met in 1920s and 1930s to divide up the world through secret agreements. Published in 1983, Barnes & Noble reprinted it in 1995. 

Planning another war, various bankers established the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) in 1930 in Switzerland, so bills between countries could be more easily paid during a war. Owned by the world's central banks and Morgan Bank, it was also used to send millions of dollars to Germany to build its war machine. Throughout World War II, BIS was used to pay bills between the U.S. and Germany, and BIS remained a correspondent bank for the Federal Reserve Bank in Washington. World War II was planned in the board rooms of Berlin, New York, and London. Various corporate/banker groups like the CFR blocked the U.S. and England from interfering with Hitler's aggressive moves before the war. A world war meant great profits and offered another chance to establish a second League of Nations and world government. 

The Chase Bank, Standard Oil of N.J., Morgan Bank group, ITT, RCA, Ford, GM, and many other American companies provided the Nazis with crucial war supplies during World War II, while thousands of Americans died fighting the Axis powers. These companies and people were called the Fraternity. Nazi corporate assets in the U.S. were also protected during the war. The U.S. war effort never benefited from this trade, and it was sometimes hindered because certain supplies America needed were instead diverted to the Nazis. Some U.S. corporations distributed pro-Nazi literature in the U.S. before and during World War II because they wanted the Nazis to win the war. Then it would have been easier to establish a similar fascist state in the U.S. President Roosevelt supported this trade by signing E.O. 8389 on December 13, 1941 which legalized trading with the enemy. Just as with the collapse of the Soviet empire, when the power of the secret government is broken, many of our heroes will be exposed and forgotten. “The auto industry, the oil industry, the aluminum industry, the steel industry and many great corporations sabotaged America before and after Pearl harbor....” 



CHAPTER X
GENERAL LICENSES 
GENERAL LICENSE UNDER SECTION 3 (a) OF THE TRADING WITH THE ENEMY ACT 

By virtue of and pursuant to the authority vested in me by sections 3 and 5 of the Trading with the enemy Act, as amended, and by virtue of all other authority vested in me, I, FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT, PRESIDENT of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, do prescribe the following: 

A general license is hereby granted licensing any transaction or act prohibited by section 3 (a) of the Trading with the enemy Act, as amended, provided, however, that such transaction or act is authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury by means of regulations, rulings, instructions, licenses or otherwise, pursuant to Executive Order No. 8389, as amended. 
FRANKLIN D ROOSEVELT 
THE WHITE HOUSE 
December 13, 1941. 
H. MORGENTHAU, 
Jr. Secretary of the Treasury 
FRANCIS BIDDLE 
Attorney General 
of the United States 

Various congressional investigations and the Assistant Attorney General of the U.S., Thurman Arnold, “have produced incontrovertible evidence that some of our biggest monopolies entered into secret agreements with the Nazi cartels and divided the world among them.” 39 The U.S. auto and aviation industries constantly delayed converting to tank, plane, and military vehicle production, so there was talk of their production facilities being taken over by the government. 40 I.F. Stone discussed this treason in Business As Usual. Arnold warned that war production was being crippled by the machinations of certain large corporations. He complained about their international agreements. On June 26, 1941 Secretary of Interior Ickes said “If America loses the war it can thank the Aluminum Corporation of America.” Alcoa had a cartel agreement with I.G. Farben, so Germany had sufficient aluminum for war production while the U.S. lacked enough aluminum before and during the war. 41 The Milwaukee Journal suggested the death penalty for corporate leaders who sabotaged the war effort. However, most large newspapers took ads from these corporations and defended their actions. 

In 1939 with the U.S. very short of rubber, Standard Oil of N.J., the largest oil company in the world, in the Jasco accord agreed that I.G. Farben would control the production of synthetic oil, with Standard Oil producing it in the U.S. only if and when I.G. Farben allowed this. This deal blocked American development of synthetic rubber. Senator Truman on March 26, 1942 called this treason. Early Signs of Treason 91 Even with a war, this serious charge by a prominent senator was largely ignored by the press and only two important newspapers reported this charge. The Truman, Bone, and Kilgore Committees said Standard Oil had “seriously imperiled the war preparations of the U.S.” 

Standard Oil of N.J. sent oil and oil parts to Germany through South America, Spain, and Switzerland throughout the war and at lower prices than the U.S. paid. It even refueled German U boats on the open seas. The Germans were constantly short of oil, so this aid probably prolonged the war by many months. Only Standard Oil, Du Pont, and GM had the rights to tetraethyl lead, a key additive used in gasoline. 42 In 1992 the Village Voice reported that the Wall Street investment firm Brown Brothers Harriman arranged for the Nazis to get and be trained in using tetraethyl lead in 1938. A senior partner of this firm was Prescott Bush, father of George Bush. This supply was critical to conduct modern warfare. In 1939 the Germans were short of this fuel, so they purchased $20 million of it from Standard Oil to invade Poland. 

On March 26, 1942 Rep. Jerry Voohis entered a resolution in the House to investigate the BIS to learn why an American remained president of a bank which was aiding the Axis powers. During World War II, R. Buckminster Fuller served as head mechanical engineer of the U.S.A. Board of Economic Warfare. In this position he saw government transcripts of intercepted phone conversations, letters, and cables. “As a student of patents I asked for and received all the intercept information relating to strategic patents held by both our enemies and our own big corporations, and I found the same money was often operative on both sides in World War II.” 43 

ITT provided telephones, air raid warning devices, radar equipment, and 30,000 fuses per month for artillery shells to better kill allied troops. This rose to 50,000 fuses a month by 1944. ITT also supplied ingredients for the rocket bombs that hit England. During the war two of the largest tank producers in Germany were Adam-Opel and Ford of Cologne. Both were wholly owned subsidiaries of GM and Ford. 44 Ford trucks were built for the German army while the Chase Bank kept its branch open in Paris throughout the war, with the agreement of the New York office, to provide financial services to the Nazis. “On January 6, 1944, the U.S. Government had indicted the DuPonts and Imperial Chemicals Industries of Britain for forming a cartel with I.G. Farben of Germany and Mitsui of Japan....The DuPonts secretly helped in the armament of Germany, and especially aided Hitler,” even betraying military secrets to Germany. 45 During the war U.S. owned factories in Germany were often deliberately not bombed by the allies. Several sources claim that after the war the U.S. government paid firms like GM millions of dollars because some of their factories did sustain damage from allied bombings. 

Throughout the war, a Philadelphia company controlled by the Sweden-SKF company supplied the Nazis with large quantities of ball bearings via South America, although the U.S. was short of these items. Without ball bearings, planes and trucks could not operate properly. Some of the employees and executives at the Philadelphia plant protested what was occurring but the Fraternity was too powerful for the U.S. government to do anything. One partner running this firm was William Batt of the U.S. War Production Board, while another partner, Hugo von Rosen, was cousin to Hermann Goring, head of the Nazi air force. 

During the war many American insurance companies reinsured their business through Swiss insurance companies which further insured the polices through German companies. Because of this these foreign insurance companies knew in advance the sailing date, location, and cargo contents of U.S. ships going to Europe. This is why so many ships were sunk. Even after the Justice Department told U.S. insurance companies to stop forwarding such information, the practice continued for at least one and a half years into the war. The Germans also obtained the blueprints of many insured U.S. installations, like the White House, which made it easy to identify and blow up key buildings. In 1945 so much of this information was found in the files of German intelligence that they had a good understanding of U.S. military production. 46 

While these corporations did this trade for profit, they also believed in fascism. Like Hitler they considered democracy and communism inherently subversive. Many business leaders were also extremely anti-Semitic. Henry Ford wrote The International Jew in 1927 and attacked the Jews in various newspapers such as the New York World. Many in Germany, including Hitler, were very influenced by this book, and Ford was one of the few people praised in Mein Kampf. Ford's book also helped make respectable the bizarre ideas of the Nazis. The New York Times on December 20, 1922 reported that Ford was funding Hitler, then an obscure fanatic. 

Based on government documents and interviews with many retired U.S. and British intelligence agents and diplomats, the book The Secret War Against the Jews, described much corporate treason before, during, and after World War II. The authors confirmed much information provided in Trading With the Enemy while adding many new insights. Allen Dulles was called one of the worst traitors this Republic has ever had. The British established a wiretap network in Manhattan to learn who was aiding the Nazis. Then they brought in a hit squad that secretly killed American businessmen, bankers, lawyers, and dockworkers involved in this trade. Reportedly this was done with the agreement of Roosevelt. The British operation was led by William Stevenson, who later wrote A Man Called Intrepid, in which he described some of these activities. 47 

In 1989 the Washington Post published an article on British operations in America during the war. A reporter was allowed a brief look at a 423-page document the British wrote in 1945 describing these activities. 48 Throughout World War II American diplomats in Switzerland included prominent Wall Streeters like Allen Dulles. Head of U.S. intelligence in Switzerland during the war, Dulles for years had worked for German firms and he conducted secret meetings with the Nazis that Roosevelt was not aware of.49 He wanted an allied/Nazi alliance against the Soviets, and he reportedly gave the Nazis the allied war plans for Europe. When Dulles went to Switzerland, a law partner, De Lano Andrews, replaced him to continue representing various German firms in New York. Lada Mocarski, director of the New York branch of Schroeder Bank, became U.S. Vice Counsel in Zurich. Leland Harrison, U.S. minister in Berne, Switzerland, helped Standard Oil ship the Nazis oil. These diplomats protected American business interests in Germany, and if German firms needed supplies like oil or munitions they provided assistance. 

Allen Dulles was legal advisor to the Anglo-German Schroeder Bank. This was the German bank for I.G. Farben, and Quigley, in Tragedy and Hope, said this bank helped bring Hitler to power. The Dulles brothers attended the meeting, which was sponsored by the Schroeder Bank, of leading industrialists in Berlin on January 4, 1933, in which the commitment was made to support Hitler. A Cologne branch of this bank, the Stein Bank, was the main financier to Himmler and the SS leadership. When Hitler took control in 1933, Kurt von Schroeder became the German representative to BIS. Schroeder was arrested after the war, but he was not prosecuted. 

John Foster Dulles, later Secretary of State, along with his brother Allen Dulles, was a partner at Sullivan and Cromwell, the New York law firm that handled loans to Germany during the 1920s and 1930s, and they handled all I.G. Farben legal work in the U.S. In 1936 a Schroeder investment group merged with a Rockefeller group to form the Schroeder Rockefeller Company. The alliances of these corporate elitists would take hundreds of pages to describe. 50 

Only one American went to jail for this treasonous trade with the enemy during World War II. Throughout the war, senior government officials like Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau, Jr. tried to stop this treason, while others such as Dean Acheson, a former Standard Oil lawyer and later Secretary of State, blocked efforts to stop this trade. Several times there were threats to stop oil supplies to the allies if pressure against this corporate treason didn't end. For protecting Nazi industrialists, one British officer was court martialed and jailed for two years, while several American officials were dismissed. It is understandable why many now promoting the new world order have such contempt for the American people. Their treason was promoted and protected by the federal government, and the guilty were rarely punished. Some senior American officials who tried to stop this treason were after the war called communists and forced to retire. 

During World War II James Martin headed the Economic Warfare Section of the Justice Department. This group studied German international business agreements. After the war Martin spent several years in Germany leading efforts to end Nazi influence and break up their cartels. In 1950 he wrote All Honorable Men. In great detail this book depicts the secret alliances between German, U.S., and British companies through secret treaties, foreign subsidiaries, patent restrictions, and interlocking directorates. Directors of Standard Oil, GE, and ITT, through German subsidiaries and personal contacts, contributed money to Himmler's Circle of Friends until 1944. 51 For these contributions the companies were protected by the SS, and they got first pick of slave labor for their factories. If there were any problems, certain U.S. government officials made sure the money flow continued. After the war U.S. Army Colonel Bogdan tried to hide this money transfer from investigators. 

Martin explained how, after the war, attempts to end Nazi influence, break up the large German cartels, and seize Nazi assets in various countries were deliberately blocked, supposedly to assist German recovery. He called the group that successfully went against official U.S. government policy towards Germany the international brotherhood or the international fraternity. Documents seized after the war showed how companies like Ford and Chase Bank conducted business as usual with their European subsidiaries during the war. The U.S. Treasury wanted to investigate numerous banks including Chase, Morgan, National City, Bankers Trust, and American Express but this was blocked. 

Key American representatives in Germany after the war came from large corporations like Rufus Wysor from Republic Steel Corporation, Frederick Devereux from AT&T, and Louis Douglas from GM. The First Director of the U.S. Eco- 94 Treason The New World Order nomics Division in Germany, Colonel Graeme Howard from GM, wrote a book in 1940 America and a New World Order. The next head, General William Craper was Secretary-Treasurer of Dillon, Read & Co. an investment banking firm that played a major role in lending money to Germany after World War I. These people and many aides they brought to Germany deliberately blocked Washington's antiNazi policies after World War II. Martin said: “In the end we were caught between businessmen representing private interests and others of the same persuasion holding official positions, where they had power to change the orders under which we operated.” Many of these people, like General Clay, were members of the CFR. 52 

In 1948 after many complaints about U.S. policy not being carried out in Germany, Congress held an investigation. The Ferguson Committee report was released April 15, 1949, but the Army still refused to carry out U.S. policies. Alexander Sacks an American official trying to carry out these policies said: “The policies of the Roosevelt and Truman Administrations have been flagrantly disregarded by the very individuals who were charged with the highest responsibility for carrying them out.” For his honesty he was promptly fired, although he was reinstated. 53 U.S. corporations were afraid that if the Nazis were prosecuted, their own involvement would be revealed. 

Martin warned about the dangerous power of the large corporations that governments needed to control. He complained that our government had not stood up to this great economic power partly because of a belief that corporations do not need to be governed. “We cannot allow the lack of social responsibility characteristic of the international behavior of private corporations during the last quarter century to become a pattern for government.” He understood that economic power must be brought under some kind of responsible control. “Since power is a public trust, the first job of a government is to see that power is used in the public interest and not against it. This is where a government must be different from a corporation....National governments in all parts of the world have granted power over segments of their national economics to various corporations....” to “build a private 'world government.' This new order, stretching far beyond the boundaries of any one nation, has operated under no law except the private law of the agreements themselves....It is time to view the results of this abdication by constitutional governments in favor of private governments.” Martin warned that just as the large corporations brought Hitler to power, unless something was done to limit corporate power, something similar could happen in the U.S. 54 

Certain influential Nazis realized they would lose the war so they gradually moved large sums of money, people, and corporate structures overseas, with the help of people like the Dulles brothers. Called “The Odessa” a 1945 U.S. Treasury Department report said the Nazis had established at least 750 businesses overseas capable of bringing in $30 million a year to support Nazi operations. Nazis helped create South Africa's racist laws and South American death squads, they trained the Arabs to fight Israel, and the many Nazis allowed into the U.S. subverted our institutions and culture. 55 

U.S. investigators after the war deliberately changed, ignored, or concealed evidence of war crimes against Nazi scientists and officials. Our laws were violated and many Nazi scientists moved to the U.S. under Project Paperclip. 56 For years the immigration of Nazi war criminals into the U.S. was kept out of the press, or there was biased reporting. U.S. intelligence agents changed the records of many Nazi war criminals, so that by 1955 about 800 Nazi scientists were working in the U.S. As described in some National Security Council directives in the late 1940s and 1950s, this was official U.S. policy. As civilian High Commissioner in Germany in 1949, John J McCloy, a leader of the CFR, helped direct Project Paperclip. 

For years after the war, a Nazi General Gehlen was the main source for U.S. intelligence regarding the communist nations. Later it became clear that he deliberately provided false information or exaggerated the capabilities of the Soviet Union and its allies, which caused the West great harm. General Karl Wolff, an SS officer and aide to General Gehlen, said: “We'll get our Reich back again. The others will begin to fight among themselves eventually and then we'll be in the middle and can play one off against the other.” Gehlen deliberately brought his intelligence organization to the U.S. so he could secretly help the Odessa operations and create East West tensions. 57 

U.S. officials and the corporate controllers loved Gehlen's lies because his information justified the cold war and the spending of billions of dollars for the national security state. And certain fascists in the U.S. quietly supported preserving Nazi influence. These Nazi war criminals were also used by our government to promote ideals of freedom and democracy in the communist nations. Often Nazi like propaganda was filtered into the messages received by the communist nations. 58 

After 1950 the Displaced Persons Commission openly allowed fascists into the U.S. The CIA-inspired Crusade for Freedom used various fascist groups to support the cold war in the U.S. These individuals joined right wing groups and an Eastern European emigre fascist network linked to former Nazi collaborators entered the Republican party through its ethnic programs such as the Heritage Groups Council. 59 In 1971 the Washington Post did an article on the fascist background of some elements of the Republican party. 60 In September, 1988 the racist and anti-Semitic leanings of certain Republican ethnic leaders was revealed and eight officials were forced to resign from the Bush campaign. 

Many of the banks and corporations conducting these treasonous activities are the same groups today plotting to establish a one world government. While there may today be no individuals in these businesses who committed treason before and during World War II, few would argue that international corporations today are much less loyal to America than was true 50 years ago. Millions of jobs have been lost as corporations shift manufacturing jobs overseas for more profits. The devastating impact this has on the U.S. is not relevant to these corporations. While this certainly does not mean every international corporation would commit treason, it does suggest that the treason conducted in World War II would not be foreign to many present day conglomerates. 

Setting up antagonistic forces to create a war is a normal business practice that doesn't get discussed in history books. Bankers are almost always the one group guaranteed to profit from a war, and when they prolong a war, profits are higher. On December 9, 1950 the Chicago Tribune said: “The members of the council (CFR)...have used the prestige that their wealth, their social position, and their education have given them to lead their country toward bankruptcy and military debacle. They should look at their hands. There is blood on them—the dried blood of the last war and the fresh blood of the present one (Korean War).” To this we can add the Vietnam and Gulf Wars.  

Frederick C. Howe acknowledged in, Confessions of a Monopolist in 1906, that a monopoly was essential to acquire great wealth and the best way to establish this was through politics, making society work for the large corporations under the guise of public interest. The welfare state, fascism, communism, and socialism are really similar means used by the corporate elite to gather wealth and control the people. Those who reject the view that there is a secret government in control and that these groups intend to remove the Constitution and establish a police state should carefully reflect on our history early this century. The corporate elite attempted to establish a dictatorship then so it should not surprise the objective observer that these forces are now attempting to do the same thing. As politicians demonstrate every day, the rule of law has been replaced by the rule of money in America. 


next
Rise of the Corporate State  

notes
Chapter VII Early Signs of Treason 
1 “Pacifists Pester Till Mayor Calls The Traitors,” New York Times, March 24, 1917, p. A2; Jennings C. Wise, Woodrow Wilson: Disciple of Revolution (N.Y: Paisley Press, 1938), p. 647. 
2 Lt. Colonel J.B. MacLean, “Why Did We Let Trotzky Go?” Maclean's (June, 1919), p. 34A, 66A, 66B. 
3 U.S., Congress, House, Rep. McFadden Congressional Record, Vol. 77 Part 6 1st Sess., June 15, 1933, p. 6227. 
4 Antony C. Sutton, Western Technology and Soviet Economic Development 1917 to 1930, Vol. I (Stanford, Ca: Hoover Institution Publications, 1968), p. 71-3, 86-91, 290-292. 
5 Michael Ledeen, “A Sellout to China,” Wall Street Journal, March 12, 1996, p. A18. The Alliance For American Innovation is taking steps to protect U.S. Patents-1100 Connecticut Ave., NW #1200 Washington, D.C. 20036-4101. 
6 Carroll Quigley, Tragedy and Hope: A History of the World in Our Time (N.Y: The MacMillian Co., 1966), p. 938. 
7 Ibid., 954. 
8 Antony C. Sutton, Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution (New Rochelle, N.Y: Arlington House Publishers, 1974), p. 176. 
9 Max Eastman, “The Character and Fate of Leon Trotsky,” Foreign Affairs (January, 1941), 332. 
10 Gabriel Kolko, “American Business and Germany, 1930-1941,” The Western Political Quarterly, XV (1962), 715. 
11 John P. Diggins, Mussolini and Fascism: The View from America (Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 1972); Michael Parenti, Inventing Reality (N.Y: St. Martin's Press, 1986), p. 115-116. 
12 M.R. Montgomery, “The Press and Adolf Hitler: What the Newspapers Didn't See,” Boston Globe, January 30, 1983, p. 10-12, 30, 32-37. 
13 Antony C. Sutton, Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler (Seal Beach, Ca: '76 Press, 1976), p. 120-122. 
14 Charles F. Ross, NRA Economic Planning (Indianapolis: The Principia Press, 1937), p. 37. 
15 U.S., Congress, Senate, Congressional Record, 1933, p. 5165; Committee on Finance, National Industrial Recovery, Hearings 73rd Cong., 1st Sess., S. 1712 and H.R. 5755 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1933), p. 5. 
16 Jules Archer, The Plot To Seize the White House (N.Y: Hawthorn Books, Inc., 1973), p. 31. 
17 Charles Higham, Trading With the Enemy (N.Y: Delacorte Press, 1983). 
18 Robert Smith, MacArthur in Korea: The Naked Emperor (N.Y: Simon & Schuster, 1982), p. 228-235. 
19 U.S., Congress, House, Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Investigation of Nazi Propaganda Activites and Investigation of Certain Other Propaganga Activities, 73d Cong., 2d Sess., Dec. 29, 1934. Hearings no. 73- D.C.-6, Part 1. Reported issued Feb. 15, 1935 HUAC, House Report no. 153 74 Congress, George Seldes; 7000 Americans (N.Y: Boni & Gaer, 1947), p. 290-292. 
20 Antony C. Sutton, Wall Street and FDR (New Rochelle, N.Y: Arlington House Publishers, 1975), p. 143-160. 
21 Archer, op. cit., Note 16, p. ix. 
22 “Plot Without Plotters,” Time, XXIV (December 3, 1934), p. 13-15. 278 Treason The New World order 
23 John Spivak, A Man In His Time (N.Y: Horizon Press, 1967), p. 298. 
24 Archer, op. cit., Note 16, p. 190. 
25 Archer, op. cit., Note 16, p. ix. 
26 U.S. Congress, Senate, Special Committee Investigating the Munitions Industry, Hearings, 73 Congress, 2d sess. (Washington, D.C: Government Printing Office, 1934-37); George Seldes, Iron Blood and Profits (N.Y: Harper & Brothers, 1934). 
27 Wayne S. Cole, Roosevelt and the Isolationists 1932-45 (Lincoln, Nebraska: U. of Nebraska Press, 1983), p. 141-162. 
28 John E. Wiltz, In Search of Peace (Baton Rouge, La: Louisiana State University Press, 1963), p. 197-202. 
29 Raymond G. Swing, “Morgan's Nerves Begin to Jump,” The Nation, May 1, 1935, p. 504. 
30 Harry Williams, Huey Long (N.Y: Alfred A. Knopf, 1969). 
31 John T. Flynn, The Roosevelt Myth (N.Y: The Devin-Adair Company, 1948), p. 66. 
32 Carleton Beats, The Story of Huey P. Long (Westport, Ct: Greenwood Press, 1935), p. 404-407. 
33 Allan A. Michie and Frank Ryhlick, Dixie Demagogues (N.Y: Vanguard Press, 1939), p. 116. 
34 Higham, op. cit., Note 17, p. 167-8; U.S., Congress, Congressional Record, Appendix, August 20, 1942, p. A3134. 
35 Charles Higham, American Swastika (Garden City, N.Y: Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1985). 
36 John Roy Carlson, Under Cover (N.Y: E.P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1943), p. 460. 
37 Michele F. Stenehjem, An American First (New Rochelle, N.Y: Arlington House Publishers, 1976), p. 29-30. 
38 Bill Kauffman, America First (Amherst, N.Y: Prometheus Books, 1995), p. 11, 15-21, 95-96. 
39 George Seldes, Facts and Fascism (N.Y: In fact, Inc. 1943), p. 68, 254. 
40 Ibid., p. 153-4, 254, 262-4. 
41 Ibid., p. 68, 262. 
42 Joseph Borkin, The Crime and Punishment of I.G. Farben (N.Y: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1978), p. 76-80. 
43 R. Buckminster Fuller, Critical Path (N.Y: St Martin's Press, 1981), p. 104. 
44 Seldes, op. cit., Note 39, p. 75. 
45 Seldes, op. cit., Note 19, p. 153, 162; In fact February 1 and 8, 1942; Seldes, op. cit., Note 39, p. 75; U.S., Congress, Munitions Hearings Part 12. 
46 James Stewart Martin, All Honorable Men (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1950), p. 19-23. 
47 John Loftus and Mark Aarons, The Secret War Against the Jews (N.Y: St. Martin's Press, 1994), p. 55-105. 
48 David Ignatius, “Britain's War In America,” Washington Post, September 17, 1989, p. C1 , C2. 
49 Martin, op. cit.. Note 46, p. 67-68. Notes 279 
50 Higham, op. cit., Note 17, p. xxiv-xxv, 188-191; “Uncle Sam and the Swastika,” Archives on Audio, radio telecast, May 23, 1980, August 12, 1990, May 24, 1992, May 30, 1993. M1l. Produced by Dave Emory. 
51 Sutton, op. cit., Note 13, p. 128-132, 123, 83, 79, 68. 
52 Martin, op. cit., Note 46, p. 79; Sutton, op. cit., Note 13, p. 149-161. 
53 Martin, op. cit., Note 46, p. 277. 
54 Martin, op. cit., Note 46, p. 264-6, 279-280, 288-291, 295-7. 
55 Tom Bower, The Paperclip Conspiracy: The Hunt for the Nazi Scientists (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1987). 
56 Christopher Simpson, Blowback (N.Y: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1988). 
57 Carl Oglesby, “Reinhard Gehlen: The Secret Treaty of Fort Hunt,” Covert Action, Number 35 (Fall, 1990), 8-16. 
58 Martin Lee, “Hitler's Last Laugh,” Propaganda Review, Number 4 (Spring, 1989), 17-21. 
59 Russ Bellant, Old Nazis, the New Right and the Republican Party (Boston: South End Press, 1989); Russ Bellant, “Old Nazis and the New Right: The Republican Party and Fascists,” Covert Action, Number 33 (Winter, 1990), 27- 3 1. 
60 Peter Braestrup, “GOP's 'Open Door:' Who's Coming In?” Washington Post, November 21, 1971, p. Al. 
61 Lee, op. cit., Note 58, p. 21. 

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